The 22-year-old is the Ibrox club’s eighth signing of the summer, and the third midfielder after the arrival of Scott Arfield and Ovie Ejaria.
Coulibaly started his career with Corsican side Bastia, playing 48 times for I Turchini and scoring once, before sealing a move to western France outfit Angers.
Able to play in defensive midfield or more centrally, Coulibaly has made 22 appearances for Les Scoïstes in all competitions, scoring once against Lille in a 1-1 draw.
Capped nine times for Mali, Coulibaly was deployed across the midfield, and also played one game at right back during his three seasons in Ligue 1.
Speaking to RangersTV, he said: “I’m very happy to be here.
“When my agent said [Steven] Gerrard was the head coach at Rangers I was happy to come and join this team.
“Gerrard is a big reason I wanted to come here, so he can help me to develop my football.”