Thompson-Herah finished in a time of 10.61secs to set a new Olympic record and retain her crown ahead of two-time former champion Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce, with Shericka Jackson completing a 1-2-3 for Jamaica.
Britain’s Daryll Neita finished last after exceeding expectations to reach the final, setting a time of 11.12secs.
Thompson-Herah’s time was the second fastest in history, beaten only by Florence Griffith-Joyner’s world record of 10.49secs set back in 1988.
Jamaica had claimed two medals in each of the last two Olympic women’s 100m finals, but this was a repeat of their podium lockout in Beijing, when Fraser-Pryce won the first of her titles ahead of compatriots Sherone Simpson and Kerron Stewart.
Fraser-Pryce got out of the blocks well but when Thompson-Herah turned on the speed at the mid-point she simply blew by and there was only one winner from 60 metres on.
Thompson-Herah would have time to begin her celebrations before the line before running to the Jamaican delegation in the stands.
She now believes the world record is within her grasp.
“It’s a work in progress. Anything is possible,” said Thompson-Herah, when asked if she could set a new mark.
“I can’t remember but I knew I was clear, that I won, so I started to celebrate too early. There’s most definitely (a world record ) if I didn’t celebrate.
“Two months ago, maybe a month and a half, I didn’t think I would be here (because of an Achilles injury). I held my composure.
“I believed in myself, I believed in God. The team around me is very strong, I get the support and I believe in myself.
“There’s confidence to work hard. I didn’t expect to run this fast, even though I felt good through the rounds. Behind this 10.6 there’s a lot of nerves but I told myself ‘you can do this, you’ve done this before, execute’.”
Jamaica had claimed two medals in each of the last two Olympic women’s 100m finals but this was a repeat of their podium lockout in Beijing, when Fraser-Pryce won the first of her titles ahead of compatriots Sherone Simpson and Kerron Stewart.
Fraser-Pryce was narrow favourite as she looked to regain the title she won in 2008 and 2012 but ran 10.74secs with Jackson crossing the line in 10.76s.
Fraser-Pryce said: “It definitely wasn’t the race I wanted in terms of the technical part of it. I don’t find excuses. As an athlete you have to show up and perform regardless of what happens.
“I had a stumble with I think my third step and I don’t think I ever recovered but I’m happy to be able to come here and represent and compete for the championship.
“It’s always a plus when you come and give everything and you walk away with whatever you have and you move on to the next one.
“The legacy we have in Jamaica is an incredible one and I’m hoping that no matter what happens, our athletes can draw inspiration from it, be it Elaine running an Olympic record or myself coming to a fourth Olympic Games.”
Jackson, who won 400m bronze in Rio, completed the Jamaican dominance and believes they have proved they are the best.
She said: “We will continue to get more medals and more medals. We are the greatest.
“We have worked hard, everyone works hard but we bring it all the way, we just bring it and I think we are the greatest.
“Sprinting takes a toll on my legs so it’s just to recover, rest tomorrow and be back for the 200m. It’s one of my favourite events.”
Neita was the only Briton to make the final after Dina Asher-Smith failed to progress from the semi-finals before revealing she had been battling a serious hamstring injury.
“That wasn’t good. I’m so disappointed. I’m not happy with that not happy with that at all,” said Neita, who came eighth in 11.12s.
“That’s not what I came here to do. I need to go away and sort a few things.”