She became the latest recipient of the awards created according to the will of Sir Alfred Noble in 1875, who also lent his name to the prizes.
The Nobel Prize is split into six categories - across Physiology or Medicine, Physics, Chemistry, Literature, Peace and Economics. science, literature, and peace.
They were first awarded in 1901 and in the preceding 122 years a total of 16 Scots have been recognised.
Here's Scotland's roll of honour.
1. Sir James Black
Sir James Black was a Scottish physician and pharmacologist who established a Veterinary Physiology department at the University of Glasgow. He shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine with Gertrude B. Elion and George H. Hitchings for their work in drug design which led to the development propranolol and cimetidine. The former is a beta blocker used to treat heart disease and the latter helps patients with stomach ulcers.
2. John Boyd Orr
Born in Kilmaurs, near Kilmarnock, Boyd Orr was a Scottish teacher, medical doctor, biologist, nutritional physiologist, politician, businessman and farmer who was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his scientific research into nutrition and his work as the first Director-General of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.
3. Angus Deaton
Edinburgh-born Sir Angus Deaton is a British economist and academic who was awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 2015 for his analysis of consumption, poverty, and welfare.
4. Alexander Fleming
Born in 1881 at a farm in Ayrshire, Sir Alexander Fleming became one of Scotland's most famous scientists. Fleming was a physician and microbiologist who discovered the world's first antibiotic. He shared the 1945 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Howard Florey and Ernst Boris Chain.