MPs have rejected a motion to give them control of the Commons agenda later this month as part of efforts to block a no-deal Brexit.
The Commons opposed the move by 309 votes to 298 - a majority of 11.
The effort had been lodged by Labour and Tory rebels in a bid to take control of Parliament's timetable.
If passed, it would have given opponents of a no-deal Brexit the chance to table legislation to thwart the UK leaving without any agreement on the 31 October deadline.
The result of the vote was greeted with cheers from the Tory benches.
Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn responded by shouting "you won't be cheering in September".
SNP Westminster leader Ian Blackford has described Scottish independence as Scotland's "way out" after MPs failed in their Commons bid to block a no-deal Brexit by the next prime minister.
"Motion in Parliament that would have began the process to stop a no deal Brexit has fallen," Mr Blackford tweeted.
"The risks of no deal are increasing. Thank goodness in Scotland we have a way out, independence.
"We cannot, must not be driven off the cliff edge by Boris or any other Tory leader."
The vote came after Tory leadership frontrunner Boris Johnson warned that MPs would "reap the whirlwind" if they tried to thwart Britain's withdrawal from the EU.
For Labour, shadow Brexit secretary Sir Keir Starmer said the move would have enabled MPs to prevent the next prime minister leaving without a deal.
Labour sources made clear they would try to find other parliamentary routes.
"This is a disappointing, narrow defeat. But this is just the start, not the end of our efforts to block no deal," Sir Keir said.
"Labour stands ready to use whatever mechanism it can to protect jobs, the economy and communities from the disastrous consequences of a no-deal Brexit.
"Any Tory leadership candidate should know that Parliament will continue to fight against no deal."