The Scottish SPCA was alerted after a neighbour of the owner found a packet of the deadly substance in a garden.
The cat, called Nala, was taken to Wilson’s veterinary practice in Cupar where it is responding well to treatment.
The SSPCA is probing whether it was a deliberate act of harm to kill an animal.
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Robyn Gray, spokesman, said, “The vet was able to confirm that the cat had become ill from ingesting a toxic substance.
“Nala’s owner found a packet of rat poison in a neighbour’s garden, which they suspect is the poison Nala had eaten.
“Unfortunately, neither they or the neighbour know where the packet came from.
“The owner said days previously they found a similar powder in their garden.
“We would like to find out what happened and whether this was a deliberate attempt to harm, or kill, an animal.”
The spokesman added: “All legal poisons are supplied with strict guidelines for use and anyone who sets a poison without following the guidelines is committing an offence. Rat poisons should be placed so that no non-target species can access the substance and must be stored safely and securely.”
Anyone with information is being urged to contact the Scottish SPCA confidential animal helpline on 03000 999 999.