British Transport Police (BTP) said Edinburgh Gateway station suffered “extensive damage” when it was targeted between 7.30pm and 9pm on Saturday.
Vehicles, construction machinery and buildings at the station were among the items damaged in the rampage. Graffiti was also daubed all over the site and windows were smashed.
BTP revealed the cost of the damage at the station, in the Gogar area, has been estimated at £45,000 to £60,000.
Officers are appealing for anyone with information about the incident to contact them.
Inspector Lindsay Clarkson said: “The station was broken into last night and extensive damage was caused to vehicles, machinery and the buildings in the station. Windows were also smashed and graffiti daubed all over.
“BTP takes criminal damage the rail network extremely seriously. It is nothing more than selfish vandalism that makes people fearful of their surroundings and costs the railway industry thousands of pounds to clean up.
“Unfortunately the costs associated with the clear up and fixing the damage caused are ultimately covered by the fare-paying passenger, which is not acceptable.
“I would like to appeal to anyone with any information about this incident to come forward and contact us on Freephone 0800 40 50 40 or text 61016 quoting reference 577 of 11/6.
“I am certain that someone out there may know something that would help us catch the person or people responsible, and I would very much like to hear from them. Any information provided will be treated in the strictest of confidence.”