Fergus McInnes, 51, was reported missing after getting on a flight from Edinburgh to Geneva in September 2014.
The remains of the research fellow were found on a wooded hillside outside Swiss city Martigny by a walker.
The discovery has been reported by his family.
There are no suspicious circumstances surrounding Mr McInnes’ death.
Mr McInnes, from St Leonard’s Bank, had worked at the University of Edinburgh’s School of Informatics before his disappearance.
He had been last seen at Geneva airport on 9 September 2014 after flying out to attend a conference.
The academic was spotted on CCTV buying a return train ticket to the Alpine town of Martigny, 50 miles to the west of Geneva. But he never checked into his hotel, appeared at the conference or boarded his return flight to Scotland.
His family said he was believed to have died on the day he went missing.
Insp Graeme Nisbet, from Police Scotland, said: “Specially-trained officers are providing support to Mr McInnes’s family following this sad news. We are continuing to liaise with Swiss Police to ensure that any further updates are passed to his loved ones and they have any assistance they require at this difficult time.”