The jury found Chauvin guilty for the killing of George Floyd.
Mr Floyd died last May after Chauvin, a white officer, pinned his knee on the 46-year-old black man's neck for about nine-and-a-half minutes in a case that triggered worldwide protests and a furious re-examination of racism and policing in the US.
The jury deliberated over parts of two days in a city on edge against another outbreak of unrest.
The jury, made up of six white people and six black or multi-racial people, weighed charges of second-degree unintentional murder, third-degree murder and second-degree manslaughter, with convictions on some, none or all of the charges possible.
The most serious charge carries up to 40 years in prison.
The city has been on edge in recent days - not just over the Chauvin case but over the deadly police shooting of a 20-year-old black man, Daunte Wright, in the nearby Minneapolis suburb of Brooklyn Centre on April 11.
Earlier in the day, President Joe Biden weighed in by saying he believes the case is "overwhelming".
He said that he had spoken to Mr Floyd's family on Monday and "can only imagine the pressure and anxiety they're feeling".
"They're a good family and they're calling for peace and tranquillity no matter what that verdict is," Mr Biden said.
"I'm praying the verdict is the right verdict. I think it's overwhelming, in my view. I wouldn't say that unless the jury was sequestered now."