Archibald, 22, from Milngavie, will be part of the women’s track squad after recovering from serious knee and arm injuries in a 70mph motorbike crash last December.
Skinner, 23, is in the men’s track squad.
The duo will both be competing for the first time at an Olympic Games.
Gary Coltman, head of performance at Scottish Cycling, said: “I would like to offer my congratulations to Katie and Callum on being selected to compete for Great Britain in their first Olympic Games.
“They have worked extremely hard and remained focused on achieving Olympic success for a long time - and selection is well deserved.
“I am confident they will do both Scotland and Great Britain extremely proud and on behalf of Scottish Cycling I wish them all the very best for a success in Rio.”
Joining the Scots pair in the team are some stellar names including seven-time Olympic medallist Sir Bradley Wiggins, Laura Trott and Joanna Rowsell Shand.
Former world champion and 26-time Tour de France stage winner Mark Cavendish also returns to the Olympic boards after competing at Beijing 2008. Jason Kenny, Ed Clancy, Phillip Hindes, Steven Burke and Welshman Owain Doull making up the remainder of the men’s track team.
World champions Becky James, Elinor Barker, Katy Marchant and Ciara Horne complete the women’s track squad.
Team GB cycling squad for the Rio 2016 Olympic Games
Jason Kenny, 28, hometown Bolton
Phillip Hindes, 23, Manchester
Callum Skinner, 23, Glasgow
Bradley Wiggins, 36, London
Mark Cavendish, 31, Douglas
Owain Doull, 23, Cardiff
Steven Burke, 28, Burnley
Ed Clancy, 31, Barnsley
Rebecca James, 24, Abergavenny
Katy Marchant, 23, Leeds
Laura Trott, 24, Harlow
Katie Archibald, 22, Milngavie
Joanna Rowsell Shand, 27, Carshalton
Elinor Barker, 21, Cardiff
Ciara Horne, 26, Harrow
Geraint Thomas, 30, Cardiff
Chris Froome, 31, Nairobi
Adam Yates, 23, Bury
Peter Kennaugh, 27, Douglas
Ian Stannard, 29, Chelmsford
Lizzie Armitstead, 27, Otley
Emma Pooley, 33, Wandsworth
Nikki Harris, 29, Draycott
Liam Phillips, 27, Taunton
Kyle Evans, 22, Wigan