Wilson has signed until the summer of 2022 after head coach Danny Wilson, Dave Rennie's successor in waiting, told him he would remain part of his plans for the club.
The 30-year-old back-row forward is in his 10th season with Glasgow and has made 166 appearances.
Wilson, who has 49 caps for Scotland, said: "(The new contract) made sense for me and my family.
"The club means a lot to me. I've seen it grow from when we were playing in front of 1,000 at Firhill to where we are now, and I want to see it keep going in that direction.
"Glasgow's become my home - my kids were all born here and all go to school here, so it was the right decision both for my rugby and my family. It's a testament to the club and what we do here in terms of our culture that guys want to stay.
"I spoke to Danny and he made it clear that I was part of his plans going forward, which was really great to hear.
"I've worked with him with Scotland - he's an excellent coach and a really good bloke, and I get on with him really well.
"I know where his head's at in terms of wanting us to move forward and I'm excited to be a part of that."