Rennie confirmed his selection ahead of the Guinness PRO14 Launch in Dublin on Wednesday morning.
The the role was shared by scrum-half Henry Pyrgos and lock Jonny Gray - who has long been regarded as a future Scotland captain - during Gregor Townsend’s final campaign in charge last term.
But Rennie has now decided Wilson is the man he wants to lead out his team.
“I’ve met Ryan two or three times over the last year and I’ve watched him train and I’ve watched him operate within the group and I believe he’s an excellent choice,” said the New Zealander.
“He was part of the leadership group last season and even in my short time here so far he speaks really well and is demanding.
“Ryan has a real ability to challenge others, but also put an arm around those who need it and I think that is a really rare quality.
“We’ll still have a strong leadership group supporting Ryan and the guys who captained last season will both have a big part to play from a leadership point of view.”
Aldershot-born Wilson joined Glasgow in the summer of 2010 and went on to become a key member of the Townsend squad which lifted PRO12 title in 2015.
To date, he has appeared for the club on 127 occasions, having made his 100th appearance against Edinburgh in January 2016.
The 28-year-old also played a crucial role in helping the club reach their first ever European quarter-final last season, scoring one of Glasgow’s six tries in the historic 43-0 victory over Leicester Tigers at Welford Road.
Known for his all-action approach to the game, the backrower has become a regular in the Scotland set-up, winning 30 caps since his debut against Wales in 2013.
Wilson’s leadership qualities are well known to Glasgow Warriors supporters, having led the team on multiple occasions throughout his career.
He can also claim the distinction of being the first - and so far, only - player to captain Scotland ‘A’ to victory over England Saxons on English soil, having led the team to a 13-9 win in Newcastle in 2013.
“It’s a huge honour for me,” said Wilson. “This club has been a big part of my life, and my family’s life, since I moved here.
“I’ve captained the club on a number of occasions, but to be named club captain means a lot to me.
“I’m looking forward to working with Dave and the coaching team and I can’t wait for the new season to begin.”