The Scot broke Paula Radcliffe's 19-year-old by two seconds after clocking 30.19 to finish four seconds behind 5000m world champion Hellen Obiri of Kenya, who smashed her own personal best over the distance by 29 seconds.
McColgan, daughter of 1991 10,000m World Championship gold medallist Liz, had got within five seconds of the record at the Vitality London 10km on May 2 having delayed her track season to focus on the roads.
“I’m obviously over the moon with that time," McColgan told Athletics Weekly. "I didn’t think I would get it today as it was a little bit of a tougher course than London.
"Hellen and Ruth [Chepng’etich] went off so fast and that pace was just too quick for me, I think they were running world record pace at one point!
“I had to keep telling myself that I was running fast and I had to keep going. To run a personal best, a national record and to be that close to Hellen, I’m really happy today.
“London was a good experience that it gave me a lot of confidence that I could run the record. Today was a different way of running where I went off hard and it was tough to keep that going but I think I’m so much stronger this year that I knew that even though I was tired I could keep going in that final 2km.
“She [Paula Radcliffe] just said ‘congrats’ and it just feels crazy and it’s very surreal. We’re in a new generation and there are new shoes now involved but I’ve certainly moved on from last year and I don’t quite have the words to say how happy I am.”