The world No 10 will be making his third appearance in the event, having finished in a share of 19th place on his debut in 2008 and tied 46th last year.
Martin Kaymer became the youngest Scottish Open champion when he lifted the title in 2009 at 24, but 21-year-old McIlroy has his sights set on claiming that record.
"It would mean a lot to me to become the youngest winner of The Barclays Scottish Open because the trophy contains some of the biggest names in golf," he said.
"It is a fantastic venue and a fantastic event supported by one of golf's greatest sponsors so all-in-all it is a very desirable title and I am sure all the other players think exactly the same way."
McIlroy's only European Tour triumph to date was in the Dubai Desert Classic last February, but he won his first US PGA Tour title earlier this year in the Quail Hollow Championship in North Carolina, closing with a sensational final-round 62 to beat Mickelson by four shots.
US-based Martin Laird will spearhead a strong home challenge at Loch Lomond.