The former Wimbledon champion says she will appeal the ban.
The five-time grand slam winner will miss the Olympic Games in Rio this summer while the earliest grand slam she could next compete in will be the French Open in 2018.
Sharapova, 29, failed a drugs test at the Australian Open in January.
She tested positive for meldonium, a substance she said she had been taking since 2006 for health issues.
Meldonium was categorised as a banned substance by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) at the start of 2016.
Sportswear company Nike halted its relationship with the Russian as a result of the positive test.