The 22-year-old from California is also the first African American to join Tiger Woods on the main American circuit during the Woods era.
Bramlett shot a closing four-under-par 68 at Orange County National to finish at 11-under for six rounds, tying for 16th in the battle for 25 coveted spots on next season's PGA Tour.
"This has been my dream since I was a little kid," said Bramlett, who grew up outside San Jose in a multi-racial family.
Like Woods, he learned the game by emulating the swing of his father in a mirror and, also like the world No 2, he went to Stanford University.
Woods was quick to take notice of Bramlett's performance, congratulating the soon-to-be rookie on making it through qualifying school via Twitter.
Woods tweeted: "Congrats to Joe Bramlett for making it through q-school. Amazing feat considering he sat out a whole year with wrist injury. Can't wait to play with him next season."
Bramlett became the youngest player at the time to qualify for the US Amateur at the age of 14.
He helped Stanford win the NCAA men's team title in 2007. The day after he graduated from there earlier this year, he was at Pebble Beach playing practice rounds for the US Open with Woods
Adrian Stills was the last black golfer to pass the qualifying test. "It's been too long," said Bramlett. "To finally end that 25-year drought means the world to me, my family and everyone who has helped me along the way."
Billy Mayfair closed with a two-under 70 to secure top spot in the Qualifying School, finishing at 18-under, a shot ahead of William McGirt (68).