In a thrilling last day in the 122nd US Open, the 27-year-old Sheffield man held off world No 1 Scottie Scheffler and Will Zalatoris to claim a one-shot victory.
The success saw Fitzpatrick join Jack Nicklaus as the only players to win the US Amateur and US Open on the same course, Nicklaus having done so at Pebble Beach in 1961 and 1972.
Fitzpatrick won the US Amateur at Brookline in 2013, the same year Justin Rose became the last Englishman to win the US Open at Merion.
That had been the first win by an Englishman in the USGA event since Tony Jacklin did the trick in 1970, but the wait on this occasion hasn’t been nearly so long after a polished last-day display from Fitzpatrick.
With the experienced Billy Foster on his bag, the seven-time DP World Tour winner landed his first professional triumph on US soil with a closing 68 to finish on six-under.
Hitting 17 out of 18 greens in regulation, he won by a shot from Scheffler (67) and Zalatoris (69), with 2020 Masters champion Hideki Matsuyama two shots further back in fourth after a best-of-the-day 65.
“No words,” said Fitzpatrick after receiving the US Open trophy and also the Jack Nicklaus Medal. “It’s what you grow up dreaming of.
“It was a big monkey on my back to win over here and to do it in a major, there is nothing better. I showed so much patience and played so solid all day.
“If there was one shot I have struggled with this year, it’s a fairway bunker shot, but the one at the last was one of best shots I’ve hit of all time.”
On earning a place in the record books alongside the game’s greatest player Nicklaus, he admitted:”It means the world.”
Scheffler, bidding for his fifth win of the season and second major after coming out on top in the Masters in April, had made the early move as he covered the first six holes in four-under-par.
His opening tee shot ended up in a divot, but that didn’t stop him knocking the approach to six feet and in that went, as did a 15-footer that found the back door at the second.
The American then knocked in a 24-footer and the fourth before making his second 2 of the day from 13 feet at the sixth to move to six-under.
On two occasions, Scheffler found himself in the solo lead only to be caught by Fitzpatrick each time as the Englishman looked to be taking the challenge in his stride.
A majestic approach set up his first birdie of the day from eight feet at the third before driving the green at the 301-yard fifth for a two-putt birdie.
A three-putt bogey at the sixth undid some of that good work before safely finding the green with his second at the par-5 eighth and giving himself another two-putt birdie.
Zalatoris had dropped shots at the second and third before re-igniting his challenge with a burst of four birdies in six holes from the sixth.
All of a sudden, the American found himself with a two-shot lead as Scheffler, having gone out in 31, started for home with back-to-back bogeys and Fitzpatrick did likewise.
A pushed drive at the 12th from Zalatoris led to that advantage immediately being halved before the 13th produced some real drama.
Fitzpatrick rolled in a 40-footer for a birdie-3, which he celebrated with a huge roar of delight, then watched Zalatoris hole from 15 foot to save par after being in trouble off the tee again.
That left the pair locked together on five-under, with Scheffler squandering a great chance to join them from five feet at the par-5 14th.
Fitzpatrick got a big break when a wide tee shot at the 15th found a good lie, making the most of it as he knocked it on to the green from there and holed a 19-footer for a birdie.
With Zalatoris dropping a shot there, that gave Fitzpatrick a two-shot lead but not for long as Scheffler moved to within one with a birdie from close range at the 17th.
Zalatoris joined him on five-under after setting up his second 2 on the back nine with a fabulous tee shot at the 16th before neither player in the final group were able to convert birdie chances at the 17th.
Fitzpatrick’s tee shot at the last found sand and, initially, it looked as though he might have to lay up. But, with just enough space to avoid a nasty tuft of rough, he found the heart of the green with one of the best shots of his career.
Zalatoris, who’d lost in a play-off in last month’s PGA Championship in Tulsa, knocked his second slightly closer but sunk to his knee as his attempt to force extra time again shaved the edge of the hole.
Foster looked to be in tears as he enjoyed a first major win of his caddying career, with Fitzpatrick’s mum and brother rushing on to the green to congratulate the new US Open champion.
Rory McIlroy, the 2011 winner, also showed his class by being at the back of the green to offer his best wishes to his Ryder Cup team-mate.
Earlier, McIlroy had started by holing a lengthy birdie putt, but, while he also made gains at the fourth and sixth, they came in a run that also included three bogeys.
Back-to-back birdies at the 14th and 15th briefly raised his hopes on the back nine, but it wasn’t to be as his wait to end an eight-year drought in majors was extended after a closing 69.
Matsuyama had set the clubhouse target after a brilliant bogey-free closing effort, but it always seemed that three-under would come up just short, as proved to be the case.
Collin Morikawa closed with his second 66 of the week to finish on two-under, boosting his confidence for next month’s Open Championship title defence at St Andrews.
In contrast, it was a disappointing last day for defending champion Jon Rahm, who lacked any real spark as he closed with a 74 to finish joint-12th.
Foster, who caddied for Seve Balletsteros, Lee Westwood and Darren Claree among others, admitted afterwards that he felt “unbelievably emotional”.
He added: “Forty years caddying and somebody had to get the monkey off my back. It means a lot. That’s put a lot of bad memories to bed. He played absolutely brilliant.”