The Paisley club confirmed in a statement on Friday that the 39-year-old Irishman will not be able to take his place in the dug-out at Parkhead after being required to self-isolate.
Assistant coaches Lee Sharp and Jamie Langfield will take charge of the team in his place.
A club statement read: "St Mirren Football Club can confirm that manager Jim Goodwin will miss this weekend’s match away to Celtic after testing positive for Covid-19.
"Everyone at the club wishes Jim a full and speedy recovery.
"Lee Sharp and Jamie Langfield will take charge of first-team duties until the manager returns."
St Mirren are still searching for their first win of the season after the opening day draw at Livingston was followed by a home defeat to Hearts on matchday two.
Celtic, meanwhile, are looking for their sixth straight win in all competitions.