The part-timers from Luxembourg dished out one of the biggest upsets in Gers' history when they dumped Pedro Caixinha's side out of the competition two years ago.
Goals from Joe Aribo and on-loan Liverpool youngster Sheyi Ojo at Ibrox mean Steven Gerrard's men should now go on and bury those painful memories.
Yet a missed a second-half penalty from skipper James Tavernier was among a host of spurned opportunities that ensure the Light Blues still have work to do in the Grand Duchy next Thursday.
The three survivors of that humiliating loss - Tavernier, Ryan Jack and Alfredo Morelos - got their shot at revenge as Gerrard handed the trio starts.
Progres, meanwhile, returned to Ibrox with four of their history-makers in the shape of keeper Sebastian Flauss, defenders Adrian Ferino and Metin Karayer and midfield anchor Ben Vogel.
On their last visit to Glasgow, the minnows limited Rangers to a 1-0 win before stunning the toothless Light Blues with two goals in the Stade Josy Barthel return. But it would rank as an even bigger disaster if Gers do not finish the job from here.
It took 20 minutes for Rangers' pressure to pay off. Their constant probing around the box dragged Niederkorn deep before the ball was popped out to Aribo in space on the edge of the box. The summer signing from Charlton set himself confidently before sweeping a delicious finish past Flauss.
The Progres stopper had to make two decent stops to prevent Andy Halliday extending Gers' lead as the hosts dropped a gear and quickened the tempo.
Morelos copped an earful from Jack as he fired wide instead of squaring to the midfielder as Progres were cut open again, while Scott Arfield chose to head a searching Tavernier cross tamely at Flauss when he had time to chest the delivery down.
The Ibrox faithful would have liked more goals by the break but they were more than happy with what Aribo was producing. Whether it be stealing a ball back with one of his telescopic lower limbs or giving his marker the slip with a shake and a shimmy, it was going down well with the crowd.
Ojo thought he had earned their appreciation a minute before the break as he fired a loose ball into the net, but the offside flag curtailed the celebrations.
But the Anfield winger only had to wait until the 53rd minute to have the fans cheering again as he collected Steven Davis' short-corner before curling a crisp 20-yard strike into the far corner.
While his side were firmly in control, Gerrard did look frustrated as Rangers appeared determined to walk the ball into the net.
And there was a roll of the eyes when Tavernier smashed his spot-kick against the base of the post after substitute Jordan Jones had been hauled down by Tom Laterza.
There were flashbacks to the Caixinha era for the fans when Progres' Jack Mmaee raced clear looking for a crucial away goal. Thankfully Allan McGregor came to the rescue with a vital block.
Again the offside flag foiled the hosts as Jack tucked home from a Jermain Defoe lay-off.
Niederkorn had Laterza dismissed at the death for a second booking but their slim hopes of a repeat shock live on thanks to Flauss' heroics in the final stages.