Little was carried off on a stretcher wearing a neck brace after lengthy treatment following a clash of heads with Dunfermline full-back Alex Whittle in the first half of Rangers’ 3-1 League One victory on Wednesday night.
The 24-year-old went straight to hospital and Rangers say it will be 2014 before he is expected to make a comeback.
The versatile Little has scored six goals this season after netting 25 last term.
Rangers are yet to discover the extent of the injury suffered by Richard Foster, who left Ibrox on crutches after hurting an ankle.
The club website said: “He has hurt his ankle but there is a lot of swelling around it and the club’s medical staff will have to wait until that subsides before they can determine the specific nature of his injury.”
Skipper Lee McCulloch also suffered a head wound but played on after getting six stitches and scored the opening goal from the spot in the 70th minute.
The penalty incident saw Dunfermline defender Jordan Moore sent off following a second booking for a foul on McCulloch and referee Gary Hilland booked a further eight players, three of them from Rangers.
Meanwhile, Rangers have postponed next week’s League One fixture against Forfar after four of their players were called up for international duty.
Ally McCoist’s team were due to host the Loons at Ibrox on Saturday, 16 November, but the game has now been called off with just ten days’ notice after the Glasgow giants invoked Scottish Professional Football League rule G7. Arnold Peralta has been selected for Honduras to play in a friendly against World Cup hosts Brazil in Miami.
Closer to home Lee Wallace is included in the Scotland squad for the double-header against the United States and Norway while Fraser Aird is away with Scotland’s Under-19s.
Lewis Macleod will also feature for Scotland’s Under-21 side, so Rangers have taken up their right to have the game postponed.