At a Professional Game Board meeting held on Tuesday, SPFL chief executive Doncaster was elected unopposed to replace the Partick Thistle chief executive.
Maxwell is understood to have applied to for the SFA chief executive vacancy following the departure of Stewart Regan.
SFA President Alan McRae thanked Maxwell for his contribution - “in particular, the part played by him during the recruitment of our national team manager” - adding: “I am pleased to welcome Neil Doncaster onto our board to replace Ian. “Neil’s experience in the game should be of great benefit to the Scottish FA and I look forward to working with him and the other directors to drive the game in this country forward.”
Doncaster said: “I am very grateful for the support of the Scottish FA Board and look forward to Scotland’s two main footballing bodies working together more closely than ever before for the good of the entire game.”
Doncaster joins McRae, Vice President Rod Petrie, Interim Chief Executive Andrew McKinlay, Alloa Athletic chairman Mike Mulraney, National Secretary of the Scottish Amateur Football Association Thomas McKeown and independent non-executive directors Ana Stewart and Gary Hughes.