The left-back was withdrawn after 74 minutes of the 1-0 win over Moldova as a precaution due to feeling "tightness" in what was his third game in seven days following his recent return from injury.
The 27-year-old, who won his 50th cap in the victory, missed Liverpool's opening matches of the campaign after damaging ankle ligaments in a pre-season friendly, only returning for the 1-1 draw with Chelsea a week past Saturday.
Scotland will now evaluate their skipper and as many as seven or eight others before selecting a team for the showdown in Vienna.
Speaking yesterday assistant coach John Carver said: “I think it’s mainly just niggles. But today’s a big day for them to recover and we’ll find out later where we are.
“We haven’t discussed the team for Tuesday night.
“We’ll have a recess tonight and discuss what is going to be the team and which way we’re going to go forward.
“But there are a few niggles, nothing I don’t think will be serious. The next 24 hours will be important and we’ll see what the medical guys say.”
Carver revealed that discussions had taken place with Liverpool head coach Jurgen Klopp concerning the fitness of Robertson ahead of the busy international break.
“I’m sure Steve [Clarke] had a chat with Jurgen with regards how much work he’s done and where he is in his fitness level," he said. “But he’s also had communication with Robbo. “That’s important, the player knows best as well.
"It was a little bit of a concern. We would’ve liked to get him off the pitch a little bit earlier. Needs must at times.
“The good thing was there wasn’t a huge issue with him.
“He just had a slight bit of tightness, which you’re going to get at this stage having been out for so long and then coming back to play a few games in a short space of time.
“Fingers crossed everything will be okay with him.”
With the trip to Austria completing three games in the space of six days, Carver admitted that the packed international fixture schedule has not helped the squad in terms of recovery time and preparation.
"By the time we get to Tuesday some of these guys might have played four games in nine days, if not 10 days," he said.
“So for example, the guys who played for Celtic on the Sunday, it’s four games in nine days.
“This is the first time we’ve actually had one day less to prepare for games.
“But that one day is very important because you do a lot of your preparation in that early part of the camp to get yourself ready for the whole three games.
“But, it’s been difficult this time.
“It feels like we’re just coming in, having a couple of days training, not even that, doing a lot of video work and then playing a game and recovering.
“We’ll do the same today – the guys will recover – and have a very light session tomorrow before travelling.
“Then we play Tuesday.
“So the intensity of the games is coming thick and fast.
“That’s why I think the manager made a number of changes against Moldova, which worked for us.
“Since I’ve been here, he’s always talked about using the squad – and that was a great example of what we did over the last two days.
“There’s going to be a lot of thought going into the selection of the team for Tuesday night.”