The full-back was replaced at half-time at Anfield following a collision with former Reds striker Luis Suarez shortly before the interval.
Speaking after the match, Liverpool boss Jurgen Klopp confirmed that the 25-year-old was nursing a calf complaint.
Robertson told the club’s website: “It doesn’t feel the best at the minute but I’ll get a scan on it.
“They’re confident that it’s just a nerve or whatever and it can be maybe a couple of days, but we’ll wait and see.
“We can’t really comment until I get the scan, but I’ll be saying my prayers tonight.”
Scotland are already likely to be without Robertson’s fellow left-back Kieran Tierney, who will undergo a double hernia operation in the close season and has all but been ruled out of the qualifiers.