The Aston Villa midfielder was named in the starting line-up with older brother Paul entering the field of play as a 76th-minute substitute.
After the match John McGinn posted a photo with his brother along with the caption: “What a special night, couldn’t be prouder.”
While the former St Mirren youngster has played 38 times for his country, Hibs defender Paul made his national team bow but by playing in the same national team the pair became the first brothers to play alongside each other for Scotland since the Caldwells.
Responding to McGinn’s photo from the Ernst Happel Stadion after the match, Gary Caldwell wrote: “I know how you feel. Well actually I don’t, because you won the game. Well done.”
Steven added: “Congratulations boys! What a feeling. Gary and I are very proud. Representing your country with your brother is hard to beat.”
The Stirling-born siblings played five times together for Scotland but were on the winning end just once – a 3-0 victory over Slovakia in 2006 World Cup qualifying.
The other matches were 1-1 draws against Moldova and the USA, a 3-1 defeat by Switzerland, and a 4-0 thrashing at the hands of Norway with Gary sent off after just 33 minutes.
That loss in Oslo in August 2009, was the final time the Caldwells played together for Scotland.
Gary was capped 55 times for Scotland between 2002 and 2013 with elder brother Stephen winning 12 between 2001 and 2011.