The 51-year-old teamed up with Ronald Duncan, Derek Oliver and Paul Foster, to move past Allan Wells and para-cyclist Neil Fachie.
The Scots showed great character to beat the hosts after trailing 8-2 after three ends and 13-11 in the final end.
Marshall’s team picked up four shots to win 15-13 and snatch a dramatic gold.
There was a fifth bowls medal for Scotland as Claire Johnston and Lesley Doig won bronze in the women’s pairs with an 18-10 victory over Canada.
For Marshall it was a second shot at that record fifth gold after he and Paul Foster were beaten into silver by Wales in the men’s pairs earlier in the week.
This latest gold adds to the Gifford bowler’s titles in the men’s pairs at Manchester 2002, men’s pairs at Melbourne 2006 and the men’s pairs and fours he won at Glasgow 2014. Marshall’s longtime pairs partner Foster, the 45-year-old Ayrshireman, now joins Wells and Fachie on four golds.
Seonaid McIntosh won her second bronze of the Games as she finished third in the women’s 50m rifle 3 positions. Her older sister Jen, who along with mother Shirley is also a past medallist, finished eighth.
Divers James Heatly and Lucas Thomson finished fifth for Scotland in the synchronised 10m platform as Tom Daley and Dan Goodfellow won gold for England.
Daley has withdrawn from tomorrow’s individual event and a bid for a third straight Commonwealth gold due to a hip injury which clearly hampered him – yet he and Goodfellow still triumphed.
The pair scored 405.81 points to take gold ahead of England team-mates Matthew Dixon, who made his Commonwealth debut in Glasgow aged 14, and Noah Williams, who scored 399.99. Bronze went to Australia’s Domonic Bedggood and Declan Stacey with 397.92.
Scotland’s Grace Reid qualified sixth best for this morning’s women’s 1m springboard final.
At the Carrara Stadium there was mixed news in the men’s 1,500m as Scot Jake Wightman qualified for the final but team-mate Chris O’Hare finished fifth in his heat and bowed out.
Katarina Johnson-Thompson is on the brink of heptathlon gold, while England qualified fastest in the men’s 4x100m relay.