New figures show the franchise, taken over by operator Abellio in April, was hit with £265,282 in penalties between July and September.
ScotRail failed to meet set standards in eight of 17 quality categories for trains, including toilets, graffiti, passenger information displays and the seat reservation system.
Cash penalties or rewards are issued depending on performance against a benchmark under the service quality incentive regime (Squire).
Since April, all fines collected by Transport Scotland are reinvested in the rail network.
Reports were previously released on an annual basis but Transport Scotland said it will now make quarterly reports publicly available.
Transport minister Derek Mackay said: “Through the Squire programme the Scottish Government is already engaged in one of the most rigorous and effective assessments of any rail franchise in the UK.
“We are pleased to be working with Abellio ScotRail to uphold and improve upon the high standards that we set ourselves by not only running a clean, efficient and safe rail network, but one that also offers unprecedented levels of transparency for the consumer.”