The 40-year-old has been working on Northern Ireland’s elite development programme following earlier stints as coach of the under-17s, under-19s and under-21s.
The former Bournemouth and Luton midfielder, who won seven caps for Northern Ireland, will continue working with Michael O’Neill for the full national team.
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Motherwell boss Ian Baraclough identified Robinson as a replacement for Kenny Black, who left the club last week.
Robinson, who begins his role on Monday, told his new club’s official website: “It is a really exciting prospect and as soon as I spoke to Ian, I was absolutely desperate to get involved. I’ve only heard great things about the club.
“I have thoroughly enjoyed my time at the Irish FA, thank them for all they have done for me and look forward to continuing to work with senior squad in the coming months and years.”
Former Scunthorpe and Sligo Rovers boss Baraclough added: “When I was between jobs I took it upon myself to watch as many different sessions as I could and was hugely impressed the times I watched Steve in action. He’s a very modern, forward-thinking coach and I am sure the lads will love working with him.
“I’ve also had some excellent feedback from a number of people in the game - he came very highly recommended from every single person I spoke with.
“Not only does he put on a great session, he is very tactically aware and very good at working with young players too, which is essential in the new model and refocused strategy we have at the club.”