The Queen has appointed him to be Scotland’s next Lord President of the Court of Session and Lord Justice General of the High Court.
The 61-year-old succeeds Lord Gill, who retired from the post at the end of May.
Lord Carloway, who previously held the role of Lord Justice Clerk – the second most senior title in the judiciary – will be officially installed as Lord President early in the new year.
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The appointment was announced by First Minister Nicola Sturgeon.
She said: “Lord Carloway has a wide breadth of experience in both the civil and criminal spheres, and his commitment to continuing reform and modernisation of our justice system is clear.
“Under his leadership I am confident that the already substantial improvements to Scotland’s courts will continue.
“I would also like to take the opportunity to thank Lord Gill for his outstanding public service both in his role as a judge and as the Lord President.”