Gerald Darmanin told reporters at the scene that the man had attacked several people, including a police officer, with a “bladed weapon” at around 6.43am local time (5.43am GMT).
He said the unnamed assailant was currently “between life and death” in hospital with French media reporting that the attacker had been shot in the chest.
Several passengers and a border police officer were among the wounded, according to officials.
The officer was stabbed in the back by the assailant, but was saved by a bulletproof vest, Mr Darmanin said.
Another of the other victims was seriously injured in the shoulder and taken for emergency treatment.
Mr Darmanin thanked the police “for their effective and courageous reaction”.
Video of the Gare du Nord, one of the French capital’s busiest commuter stations, showed an eerie calm with dozens of police stationed by the Eurostar terminal entrance in areas cordoned off from the public.
The incident caused major delays to trains at the station in the early morning rush, with police cordoning off the station and setting up large white curtains around the attack scene.
French rail operator SNCF reported traffic disruptions at the departure and arrival areas of the station tweeting: “The police seem to have opened fire against a dangerous person who injured travelers at Gare du Nord.”