This comes just two days after supporters of Mr Bolsonaro’s former far-right government stormed the country’s Congress building in capital Brasilia.
More than 300 people were arrested following the weekend riots, just a week after new president, Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva took office. Late last year, Mr Lula, co-founder of the Workers’ Party (PT), won 50.6 per cent of the vote in the second round run-off of the Brazilian elections against Mr Bolsonaro.
Mr Bolsonaro has suffered repeated stomach problem and blockages in his gut after being stabbed in 2018 during the presidential campaign.
He said in a tweet that he had been treated and discharged from hospital in Orlando, Florida.
"After being stabbed in Juiz de Fora/MG, I underwent five surgeries. Since the last one, I had adhesions that led me to other medical procedures.”
He added that he was “grateful for the prayers and messages of prompt recovery”.
His wife, Michelle Bolsonaro, confirmed that her husband was under observation due to abdominal discomfort.
The former president is believed to have left Brazil for the US around ten days ago, just before Mr Lula’s inauguration, where he has stayed at a property reportedly owned by a professional mixed-martial arts fighter.
Before his hospital admission, he criticised the riots.
He said: “Peaceful demonstrations, in the form of the law, are part of democracy. However, depredations and invasions of public buildings as occurred today, as well as those practised by the left in 2013 and 2017, escape the rule.”
US president Joe Biden is coming under increased pressure to remove Mr Bolsonaro from the country.
Democratic Representative Joaquin Castro told a US TV interview: “Bolsonaro should not be in Florida. The United States should not be a refuge for this authoritarian who has inspired domestic terrorism in Brazil. He should be sent back to Brazil."
US National Security Adviser Jake Sullivan said that the US has received "no official request" from the Brazilian government relating to Mr Bolsonaro's visa.