The Australian city was the only candidate but the decision still had to be ratified with a vote at the 138th International Olympic Committee Session.
IOC president Thomas Bach announced the outcome of the vote, which drew celebrations from members of the delegation in Tokyo and from people who had gathered to hear the outcome in Brisbane, where there was a fireworks display.
The Olympics will head to Australia for a third time, with Melbourne hosting in 1956 and Sydney in 2000.
Despite the lack of any opposition, the Brisbane delegation, which included Australian Prime Minister Scott Morrison appearing via video link, produced a lengthy presentation.
The presentation focused on the inclusivity and environmental sustainability of the bid, with venues across Queensland set to be used.
It comes as the world gears up for the Tokyo Olympics 2020.
Paris will be the next hosts in 2024, with Los Angeles – which previously held the Games in 1984 – taking over the torch for 2028.