The Met Office has issued a yellow warning stretching from Inverness down to the Borders, and as far west as Argyle.
The thunderstorm is set to hit between 4pm and 11pm this evening, with hailstones possible in some areas.
Edinburgh, the Lothians, Fife, Dundee, Aberdeenshire, Stirling and Tayside are all affected by the warning.
The Met Office said: “Bands of heavy rain and thunderstorms are likely to move northwards across Scotland through Tuesday afternoon and evening.
"These may bring 20 to 25 mm in an hour and perhaps 40 to 60 mm in 3-4 hours in one or two places, mainly in the east.
"Lightning and hail may be additional hazards. Rain and thunderstorms are expected to move northwards overnight then ease and clear early on Wednesday morning.”