The survey by the National Centre for Social Research (NatCen) concluded that Leave won the EU referendum by galvanising disengaged voters who are “economically deprived and anti-immigration”. More than half of non-voters in the 2015 general election cast a ballot in the referendum, with 60% of them voting Leave.
Labour and the SNP saw 36% of supporters reject the party position and vote for Brexit, compared with 26% of Liberal Democrats.
The research identified a move away from left-right politics, with voters dividing between socially liberal Remainers and conservative Leavers. Remain also failed to get out its vote, according to NatCen.