The pro-Palestine politician suffered a suspected broken jaw and rib as well as facial injuries following an incident in Golborne Road, Notting Hill, London, on Friday evening.
Mr Galloway had been posing for photos with people moments before, his spokesman said.
A man was arrested by police shortly afterwards and questioned by detectives overnight.
The Metropolitan Police said Neil Masterson, 39, of Camden Hill, London, will appear before Hammersmith Magistrates’ Court tomorrow.
The force said he was charged with “assault by beating which is religiously aggravated on a male in his 60s and also common assault on a male in his 40s”.
It was understood the second charge related to a member of the public who stepped in.
Mr Galloway, who represents Bradford West for the Respect Party, was treated overnight at St Mary’s Hospital, Paddington, before being released on Saturday morning.
His party tweeted a photo of his bruises which was taken as he made his way to hospital.
Mr Galloway was interviewed earlier this month by West Yorkshire Police following a speech in Leeds in which he claimed Bradford was an Israel-free zone.
He thanked his Twitter followers for their support and said he hoped to be back in front of an audience in London on Thursday.
He said: “Thanks for all good wishes. I’m in a lot of pain but in good heart.”