Gordon Jack, 47, who ran the Scotimage agency in Linlithgow, is thought to have suffered a heart attack before falling and hitting his head on a gravestone.
He was photographing the Wimbledon champion at Dunblane Cathedral ahead of a rehearsal with bride Kim Sears when he took ill and fell to the ground.
Murray is reported to have leant towards Mr Jack with concern during the incident on Friday, before being ushered away by his security team for a wedding rehearsal with Ms Sears.
Mr Jack was taken to Forth Valley Hospital in Larbert, where it is understood he was put into a medically induced coma before passing away on Saturday afternoon.
In one of his last photo tweets, he posted an image of the cathedral bathed in sunshine and said: “Hope the weather holds.”
First Minister Nicola Sturgeon is among those who have paid tribute.
In a tweet, she said: “Totally devastated to hear about the death of Gordon Jack. A lovely man and a great photographer.
“My thoughts are with his family and colleagues.”
Described as an “outstanding photographer, Mr Jack worked at the highest level as an editorial and public relations photographer during a career spanning two decades.
His work took him all over the world, and he supplied images and stories to a range of international publications. The plight of refugees in Kosovo and the war in Afghanistan were among his numerous overseas assignments.
Diversifying into wedding and studio photography from 2002, he was one of the first photographers to offer a documentary style to wedding couples which was aimed at producing a more relaxed and informal account of their day.
Former colleagues were quick to pay respects. Leaders at the National Union of Journalists Scotland tweeted: “Our condolences to the wife and children of Gordon Jack, who has died after a fall at Dunblane Cathedral covering Andy Murray’s wedding.”
Alasdair Baird, picture editor of the Daily Record newspaper in Scotland, Mr Jack’s employer for several years, said: “Gordon was an outstanding photographer and journalist who was loved and respected in equal measure by his colleagues.
“He was equally comfortable covering a warzone or a fashion shoot. His passing is a great loss to our industry and he will be sorely missed by all that knew him.”
News of Mr Jack’s death cast a shadow over the wedding of Andy Murray and Kim Sears on Saturday, when the couple were congratulated by hundreds of well-wishers who had lined Dunblane’s streets.
Mr Jack is survived by his wife Gilly and three children Megan, 17, Sam, 14, and Emily, ten.