The National Union of Rail, Maritime and Transport Workers (RMT) says the employee was promoted two weeks after being removed from his original post due to an incident where he was the subject of a collective grievance by 16 workers.
Workers are said to be "incensed" at the promotion, with more than 80% of union members voting in favour of a walkout in a recent ballot.
Traincare grade A1.3, A3.3 and B2.2 members will not book in for any shifts between 12.01am and 11.59pm on Monday.
They have also been instructed not to work any rest days or work any "higher grade duties" from 12.01am on Sunday until further notice.
RMT general secretary Mick Lynch said: "It is a disgrace that a ScotRail manager who has been found guilty by the company of breaching its dignity and respect policy has been promoted when everyone at the company is well aware that an ordinary worker would be dismissed for the same offence.
"RMT signed up to the policy in good faith and in the belief that any bullying and harassment by any worker, regardless of their position in the company, would not be tolerated.
"We have been left with no choice but to take strike action over the double standards within ScotRail, which are frankly unbelievable and make a mockery of its dignity and respect policy.
"The union remains available for talks aimed at resolving this dispute."
ScotRail is also facing a continuing reduction of Sunday services amid weekly walkouts by ticket examiners and conductors.
Last month ticket examiner members voted in favour of strike action over a dispute around "equality and justice over enhanced payments for rest day working", with May 2 marking the first of their six weeks of action.
It was also due to be the last of six Sundays of strikes by conductors - workers who the rail firm claims are trying to force a 50% increase in overtime payments for working no additional hours.
But these workers began another six Sundays of action from May 9.