The £104 million revamp, due to start this year, will enable platforms to be lengthened towards George Square.
A new glass frontage to the station will be created onto the square if agreement is reached with the Millennium Hotel to demolish its 1960s western extension.
The work will not now be completed until 2019, as Scotland on Sunday revealed last year.
The concourse will be extended east into the car park to house shops and cafes on two levels, with a link to an expanded Buchanan Galleries shopping centre.
The work is part of the £742m Edinburgh Glasgow Improvement Programme (Egip) to electrify the main line between the cities by 2019.
Public consultation into the plans will run in two phases – the first until the end of May, with a second between September and December.
Transport Minister Keith Brown said: “Egip has already delivered the stunning new-look £25m Haymarket station in Edinburgh, and this complete transformation of Queen Street means passengers will benefit at both ends and at all points in between.”
David Dickson, acting route managing director for Scotland for Network Rail, which owns the station, said: “We want to hear what passengers think of this exciting new vision for the future Queen Street – a vision of a station which better serves passengers and Glasgow and creates a landmark development in this iconic location.
“The new-look Queen Street will greatly enhance the city centre and we want the public to help inform the final design of a station that will serve their needs for years to come.”