The man, 19, was detained by police on Sunday afternoon in connection with the incident on the A706 Linlithgow-Bo’ness road.
The collision occurred at around 1am on Sunday. The pedestrian hit by the vehicle was taken to hospital with serious injuries.
Police Scotland said the vehicle involved in the collision was recovered on Sunday afternoon. No other vehicle is thought to be involved in the incident.
The man is expected to appear in court later today.
Anyone who may have witnessed the collision is asked to contact Police Scotland on 101.