The creatures, which can run up to 30mph and weigh more than 20 stone, are listed in the Dangerous Wild Animals Act 1976.
Government agency Scottish Natural heritage is to hold a public meeting over concerns they could be a danger to the public.
The colony is believed to be near the Perthshire town of Alyth.
Gavin Clark, an operations manager at SNH, told a national newspaper: “If you do see a wild boar, they’re likely to run away from you. If they don’t, walk away slowly - don’t feed them and keep your dog on a lead.
“There have been some sightings on Alyth Hill and there may be between 20 and 40 animals, but information is limited. We want to learn more about their numbers and movements.”
It is believed the wild boar escaped or were set loose from a private collection and have since bred to be herd size.
A local pig farmer David Brough told The Times newspaper: “They are a danger to the public. I have seen a dozen big ones. I would reckon they were more than 20 stones and by, god, they can run.
“They have to be eliminated,” he added.