His 18-year-old mother was 30 weeks pregnant when the car she was in was involved in a collision with a van in Fife on Wednesday.
She was rushed to the Victoria Hospital in Kirkcaldy, where she underwent an emergency Caesarean and gave birth to her son.
Police have now confirmed the infant died a short time later.
His mother remains in hospital in a serious condition.
She had been the front seat passenger in a Seat Leon car which was involved in a crash with a Transit van in the village of Auchertool.
The teenager suffered significant injuries to her neck and abdomen, with others who were in the car also requiring hospital treatment.
Sergeant Stephen Quinn said: “Our deepest sympathies are with the young mother and her family at this time. We will continue to provide them with all the necessary support and assistance they may require.
“As part of this investigation we are keen to hear from other motorists who were on the B9157, near Meadowfield, at around 10.20pm on Wednesday night and may have witnessed what happened.
“Similarly, anyone with any other information they believe is relevant to this inquiry should also contact police immediately.”
A 59-year-old man, a 43-year-old woman and a 10-year-old girl who were all travelling in the van were treated for minor injuries.