The 1997 release, containing singles such as Paranoid Android and Karma Police, fended off albums by Nirvana and Oasis to top the list of greats.
Radiohead's third album was chosen by readers of Q magazine, who were asked to name the best album released in the past 25 years.
The band also took three other places in the top 30 - which was compiled to mark 25 years of the magazine - with The Bends at eight, Kid A at 18 and In Rainbows at 23.
OK Computer saw the group, who formed in Oxford in 1985, toying with "prog rock"-style suites, in contrast to the more straightforward guitar rock they had recorded until then.
The poll shows the album has had considerable staying power in Q readers' affections. They voted it the finest release of all time 12 years ago.
The list, to be published in the February edition on sale on 29 December, sees Nirvana's worldwide hit Nevermind in second place, with Oasis taking the next two positions. Their debut Definitely Maybe was third, while (What's the Story) Morning Glory? was fourth.