The Prime Minister secretly posed for the renowned portrait photographer Annie Leibovitz in a photo shoot to appear in the magazine’s April edition.
Downing Street sources denied reports the feature was connected to her impending visit to the United States for her first meeting with Donald Trump.
It is understood the photo shoot took place earlier last year before Mr Trump’s victory in the presidential election.
“The long-planned shoot for US Vogue will come out in April,” a No 10 spokesman said.
The disclosure comes just weeks after the magazine’s editor Anna Wintour was made a dame in the New Year’s Honours.
It is not the first time Mrs May’s fashion sense had made headlines.
She was publicly criticised by former education secretary Nicky Morgan for her extravagance after she appeared in a previous magazine spread wearing a £995 pair of leather trousers.
She has also long been known for her kitten heels and her eye-catching choice of footwear.