The First Minister dispensed with the tradition that political leaders do not comment on elections in other countries to endorse the Democrats’ candidate ahead of Tuesday’s vote.
Ms Sturgeon, who has previously made her disapproval of Mr Trump known, said Mrs Clinton would be “a great president”.
Writing in the Sunday Mail, she said: “Her election would be a result which was warmly welcomed around the globe but would also mark the shattering of the glass ceiling in terms of equality for women.
“She is not perfect - what politician, anywhere, is?
“But she will be a great role model for women the world over. What’s more she’ll be a president.
“I wish her luck on Tuesday.”
As Ms Sturgeon spoke out in support of Mrs Clinton, former First Minister Alex Salmond launched his latest attack on her White House rival.
In an interview with the Sunday Herald newspaper, Mr Salmond said a win for the Republican candidate would be “a huge retrograde step and a ludicrous gigantic folly for the United States”.
“It would be a national embarrassment for America and would be the most harmful thing to the reputation of the US since Vietnam.”
Mr Salmond had a much-publicised falling-out with Mr Trump when the businessman tried to block a wind farm development off the coast of his Aberdeenshire golf course.
He has previously branded Mr Trump as “unfit” to be president, claiming the Republican hopeful can swing from “bonhomie to bullying” in a single phone call.