Deputy First Minister John Swinney set out measures aimed at improving the links between home and the classroom.
These include actions to encourage the involvement of groups including minority parents, parents of children with additional support needs and those with children who are disabled or have learning disabilities.
Other measures include expanding opportunities for parents to volunteer in schools, reviewing the statutory guidance on parental involvement and improving guidance and training for parent councils.
Mr Swinney said: “We want every parent and family to have the right support in place so that they can be involved in every stage of their children’s learning and development.
“We know there is a strong link between parental engagement and academic achievement, and this plan will play a key role in helping to reduce the attainment gap.
“This action plan will help cement Scotland’s place as a world leader in parental involvement and engagement, and I look forward to working with a wide range of partners to deliver this plan in the coming three years.”
Councillor Stephen McCabe, Cosla’s children and young people spokesman, said: “Involving parents in all aspects of their children’s education is a crucial part of ensuring that children and young people get the most from their time in school and are able to fulfil their full potential.
“Local authorities have a strong track record in supporting parental engagement and involvement in all its forms, from involving parents in their children’s learning to decision-making on education policies and priorities.
“We are pleased to have been involved in the development of the national action plan and hope that the partnership approaches set out in the plan strengthen and improve parental involvement in our children and young people’s education.”
Joanna Murphy, chair of the National Parent Forum of Scotland, added: “Although a great deal has been achieved in the past decade, there is more to be done.
“This strategy takes forward the recommendations of our review and I hope it will allow all of us to continue to keep parents at the heart of their child’s learning.
“I welcome this firm step towards a political and legislative environment which champions the voice of parents.”