Campaigners say the measures are an opportunity to create "healthier homes" and drive a green recovery, as the country seeks to reach a flagship `Net Zero’ target for emissions by 2045.
Homes and workplaces account for around 21% of Scotland’s total greenhouse gas emissions mainly through gas central heating.
A new Heat in Buildings Strategy published by the Scottish Government today sets out plans to "rapidly scale up" heat pumps and heat networks.
The strategy aims to double installations each year so that by 2030 over one million homes and around 50,000 non-domestic buildings are converted to use these systems. This will rise to over two million homes and 100,000 non-domestic properties by 2045.
Almost £1.6 billion for heat and energy efficiency projects across Scotland is to be made available over the next five years to help deliver the new targets.
But the total bill to transform all homes and buildings in Scotland is expected to top £33 billion and a new Green Heat Finance Task Force is also being established to help attract private finance.
"Reducing emissions from our homes and buildings is one of the most important things we can do to help end Scotland’s contribution to climate change," energy minister Paul Wheelhouse said.
"Over the next 24 years we will transform Scotland’s homes and workplaces so they are warmer, greener and more efficient."
Fabrice Leveque, Head of Policy at WWF Scotland said that tackling the way homes are heated is one of the biggest challenges in reaching the net zero target.
"There are many welcome steps, including the phasing out of public funding for fossil fuel heating systems, though this needs to go faster, and targets to increase the use of heat networks across the country," she said of the strategy.
"These steps are needed to accelerate the climate make-over that our homes and buildings require, which is also an opportunity to create healthier homes and new economic opportunities as part of a green recovery."