The declaration came as UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson said a British warship was acting legally in international waters after a confrontation with the Russian military off the Crimean coast.
Russia summoned the British ambassador in Moscow for a formal diplomatic scolding after the warship breached what the Kremlin says are its territorial waters, but which Britain and most of the world say belong to Ukraine.
Britain said Russia was sowing inaccuracies and disputed Russia's account, saying no warning shots had been fired and that no bombs had been dropped in the path of the Royal Navy destroyer Defender.
Russia's foreign ministry summoned Ambassador Deborah Bronnert to deliver a “tough demarche” – diplomatic jargon for a telling off – and spokeswoman Maria Zakharova accused London of "barefaced lies".
"We believe it was a deliberate and premeditated provocation," Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov said of the incident, in which Moscow said it fired warning shots and dropped bombs in the path of the British destroyer.
"In the event of a repeat of unacceptable provocative action – if those actions go too far, no options can be ruled out in terms of legally defending Russia's borders," Mr Peskov told reporters.
Mr Johnson had earlier said: "I think it was wholly appropriate to use international waters. The important point is that we don't recognise the Russian annexation of Crimea.
"These are Ukrainian waters and it was entirely right to use them to go from A to B."
Mr Johnson disagreed relations with Russia were at a historic low.
"I can remember times in my own lifetime when things have been far worse," he said. "All we're doing is upholding the rule of law."
The Black Sea, which Russia uses to project its power in the Mediterranean, has for centuries been a flashpoint between Russia and its competitors such as Turkey, France, Britain and the United States.
Russia seized and annexed the Crimea peninsula from Ukraine in 2014 and considers areas around its coast to be Russian waters. Western countries deem the Crimea to be part of Ukraine and reject Russia's claim to the seas around it.
Britain has also disputed the Russian version of events, with foreign secretary Dominic Raab saying: "No shots were fired at HMS Defender."
He added: "The Royal Navy ship was conducting innocent passage through Ukrainian territorial waters. We were doing so in accordance with international law and the Russian characterisation is predictably inaccurate."
Under international law of the sea, innocent passage permits a vessel to pass through another state's territorial waters so long as this does not affect its security.
During its 2008 war with Georgia, Russia bristled at US warships operating in the Black Sea, and in April the United States cancelled the deployment of two warships to the area.
Both Russian president Vladimir Putin and US president Joe Biden say relations between the two former Cold War foes are at a low point.
Ties between London and Moscow have been on ice since the 2018 poisoning with a Soviet-developed nerve agent known as Novichok of ex-double agent Sergei Skripal.