But the Ipsos MORI survey for BBC Scotland also found support for keeping the rate of income tax at the same level as in England.
Respondents were asked to rank policy ideas on a scale of one to 10, with one meaning the policy was poor and should not be implemented and 10 meaning it should be implemented immediately.
Labour’s policy of raising the top rate of income tax from 45p to 50p attracted a net score of 7.3.
SNP leader Nicola Sturgeon has backed the move in principle but ruled it out in the first year of the new powers coming to Holyrood, amid fears it could lose Scotland £30 million in revenue.
The poll also found support for the Conservative idea that income tax in Scotland should be kept the same as for people in England, a policy that scored 6.5.
A 1p increase in income tax for all rates to invest in education, as backed by Labour and the Liberal Democrats, was slightly less popular at 6.2.
The policy scored the same as the idea that those living in more expensive homes should contribute more council tax.
An increase in all rates of council tax by up to 3% for the money to be spent on schools was less popular, scoring a mean of 5.1.
On welfare the most popular policy, with a score of 7.3, was increasing the level of free childcare for three and four-year-olds from 15 to 30 hours a week in order to help parents go back to work, a policy put forward by the SNP.
Ipsos MORI interviewed 1,002 people between March 18 and 29.