It came in a statement which referred to “personal sanctions against the leadership of the UK”.
However, Ms Sturgeon brushed aside being included in the so-called “stop list” and stressed: “Putin is a war criminal and I will not shy away from condemning him and his regime”.
Those barred from entering Russia also include Deputy Prime Minister Dominic Raab, Foreign Secretary Liz Truss, Defence Secretary Ben Wallace, Transport Secretary Grant Shapps, Home Secretary Priti Patel, Chancellor Rushi Sunak and former prime minister Theresa May.
The other politicians banned are Business Secretary Kwasi Kwarteng, Culture Secretary Nadine Dorries, defence minister James Heappey and Suella Braverman, Attorney General for England and Wales.
Russia said the list would be expanded “in the near future” to include “British politicians and parliamentarians who contribute to whipping up anti-Russian hysteria, pushing the ‘collective West’ to use the language of threats in dialogue with Moscow, and shamelessly inciting the Kiev neo-Nazi regime.”
Its foreign ministry said: “In connection with the unprecedented hostile actions of the British government, expressed, in particular, in the imposition of sanctions against top officials of the Russian Federation, a decision was made to include key members of the British government and a number of political figures in the Russian ‘stop list’.
“This step was taken as a response to London's unbridled information and political campaign aimed at isolating Russia internationally, creating conditions for containing our country and strangling the domestic economy.
“In essence, the British leadership is deliberately aggravating the situation around Ukraine, pumping the Kyiv regime with lethal weapons and coordinating similar efforts on the part of Nato.
"The instigation of London is also unacceptable, which is strongly pushing not only its Western allies, but also other countries to introduce large-scale anti-Russian sanctions, which, however, are senseless and counterproductive.
“The Russophobic course of the British authorities, whose main task is to stir up a negative attitude towards our country, curtail bilateral ties in almost all areas, is detrimental to the well-being and interests of the inhabitants of Britain itself.
"Any sanctions attacks will inevitably hit their initiators and receive a decisive rebuff.”
But Ms Sturgeon said: "Scotland is determined to take the strongest possible action to isolate and penalise [Putin’s] regime, and do everything possible to support the people of Ukraine.
“We must make sure that those on the side of freedom and democracy work together to ensure Putin’s regime, and his network of oligarchs, are as isolated as possible.
"International condemnation - not just in words but in actions - against Russia must be as strong as possible.
“It falls to every leader to choose a side in this unprovoked aggression.
"I am clear that I stand with Ukraine and against Putin.
"And Scotland is clear – we all stand with Ukraine.”
A UK Government spokesperson said: "The UK and our international partners stand united in condemning the Russian government's reprehensible actions in Ukraine and calling for the Kremlin to stop the war.
"We remain resolute in our support for Ukraine."