The Scottish Government will invest £127,000 in the Catholic teacher Education Programme this year - up from £28,000 last year.
The money will allow 322 student teachers to get a Catholic Teaching Certificate - which is a requirement for teaching in a Catholic school - 46 more than the previous year.
The additional cash will also mean the training will be available at Aberdeen University for the first time, as well as Edinburgh, Glasgow and Strathclyde universities.
The First Minister announced the funding boost as she gave this year’s Cardinal Winning lecture at the University of Glasgow.
Ms Sturgeon said: “2018 is the centenary of the legislation that brought Roman Catholic schools into Scotland’s state education system. In that time, Catholic schools have made a tremendous contribution to Scottish education, and this is something we want to see continue.
“The Scottish Government is committed to ensure that all schools - both denominational and non-denominational - have the right number of teachers in place.
“I am therefore delighted that the increased investment I am announcing today will fund 322 training places - giving additional career choice for trainee teachers, and making it easier for Catholic schools to recruit.”