The study, by Opinium for Sky News of 1,014 adults between September 2 and September 8, goes against the grain seen this year, with support for separation dropping following a spike last year.
The poll found that 51% would vote for independence, when undecided voters were removed.
But just 31% of those surveyed said they believed there should be another referendum in the next two years – the timeline set out in the co-operation agreement between the SNP and the Greens – while the same number of respondents said there should not be another vote at all.
A further 15% said there should be a vote in the next five years, while 13% said there should another referendum, but not in the next five years.
The SNP also saw a four-point increase in the number of people saying they would vote for the party at the next Westminster election, rising to 51%.
When asked about the deal between the SNP and the Greens, which secured ministerial positions for co-leaders Patrick Harvie and Lorna Slater, 44% of respondents said they believed it would be good for Scotland, while 33% thought the opposite.
Responding to the poll, Scottish Greens MSP Gillian Mackay said: “It’s clear that the public see Scottish Greens in government as a positive step for the country.
“That’s because our cooperation deal reflects their priorities for a green recovery from the pandemic that tackles the climate emergency head on and leaves no-one behind.
“It’s also encouraging to see another poll in favour of independence, in a week when the UK Government has announced a new regressive tax, abandoned refugees and taken climate commitments out of its grubby post-Brexit trade deals.”
Opinium senior research manager Chris Curtis said: “While there may not be a burning appetite for another referendum on Scottish independence, the data shows why the nationalists would stand a better chance of winning second time around.”