The Economy Committee wants to hear from businesses and workers on areas such as exports, inward investment, and labour and employment rights.
It aims to use the information it gathers in its recommendations to the UK and Scottish governments.
These will be published in letters to the administrations in early 2017.
Committee convener Gordon Lindhurst said: “We want to hear opinions on fundamental and important issues, such as where are the growth markets outside the EU for Scottish business, and what are the barriers to growing exports in these developing markets.
“What impact will restrictions on the free movement of labour have on sectors employing the highest number of non-UK EU nationals? And if you are a non-UK EU national, why do you choose to live and work in Scotland?
“These are all vital questions, and it’s crucial that the valuable knowledge, experience and expertise of Scotland’s businesses and workers contribute to our work where possible.”